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Landon Stewart
Landon Stewart


The reverse() method reverses an array in place and returns the reference to the same array, the first array element now becoming the last, and the last array element becoming the first. In other words, elements order in the array will be turned towards the direction opposite to that previously stated.



The reverse() method is generic. It only expects the this value to have a length property and integer-keyed properties. Although strings are also array-like, this method is not suitable to be applied on them, as strings are immutable.

In case you want reverse() to not mutate the original array, but return a shallow-copied array like other array methods (e.g. map()) do, you can do a shallow copy before calling reverse(), using the spread syntax or Array.from().

Reverse mortgages are increasing in popularity with seniors who have equity in their homes and want to supplement their income. The only reverse mortgage insured by the U.S. Federal Government is called a Home Equity Conversion Mortgage (HECM), and is only available through an FHA-approved lender. The HECM is FHA's reverse mortgage program that enables you to withdraw a portion of your home's equity. The amount that will be available for withdrawal varies by borrower and depends on:

The reverse() function can reverse a large variety of regular expressionpatterns for URLs, but not every possible one. The main restriction at themoment is that the pattern cannot contain alternative choices using thevertical bar ("") character. You can quite happily use such patterns formatching against incoming URLs and sending them off to views, but you cannotreverse such patterns.

Normally, you should always use reverse() to define URLswithin your application. However, if your application constructs part of theURL hierarchy itself, you may occasionally need to generate URLs. In thatcase, you need to be able to find the base URL of the Django project withinits web server (normally, reverse() takes care of this foryou). In that case, you can call get_script_prefix(), which will returnthe script prefix portion of the URL for your Django project. If your Djangoproject is at the root of its web server, this is always "/".

Obverse and its opposite, reverse, refer to the two flat faces of coins and some other two-sided objects, including paper money, flags, seals, medals, drawings, old master prints and other works of art, and printed fabrics. In this usage, obverse means the front face of the object and reverse means the back face. The obverse of a coin is commonly called heads, because it often depicts the head of a prominent person, and the reverse tails.

Generally, the side of a coin with the larger-scale image will be called the obverse (especially if the image is a single head) and, if that does not serve to distinguish them, the side that is more typical of a wide range of coins from that location will be called the obverse. Following this principle, in the most famous of ancient Greek coins, the tetradrachm of Athens, the obverse is the head of Athena and the reverse is her owl. Similar versions of these two images, both symbols of the state, were used on the Athenian coins for more than two centuries.

In the many republics of ancient Greece,[4] such as Athens or Corinth, one side of their coins would have a symbol of the state, usually their patron goddess or her symbol, which remained constant through all of the coins minted by that state, which is regarded as the obverse of those coins. The opposite side may have varied from time to time. In ancient Greek monarchical coinage, the situation continued whereby a larger image of a deity, is called the obverse, but a smaller image of a monarch appears on the other side which is called the reverse.

A movement back to the earlier tradition of a deity being placed on the obverse occurred in Byzantine coinage, where a head of Christ became the obverse and a head or portrait (half or full-length) of the emperor became considered the reverse. The introduction of this style in the gold coins of Justinian II from the year 695 provoked the Islamic Caliph, Abd al-Malik, who previously had copied Byzantine designs, replacing Christian symbols with Islamic equivalents, finally to develop a distinctive Islamic style, with just lettering on both sides of their coins. This script alone style then was used on nearly all Islamic coinage until the modern period. The type of Justinian II was revived after the end of the Byzantine Iconoclasm, and with variations remained the norm until the end of the Empire. Without images, therefore, it is not always easy to tell which side will be regarded as the obverse without some knowledge.

If not provided for on the obverse, the reverse side usually contains information relating to a coin's role as a medium of exchange (such as the value of the coin). Additional space typically reflects the issuing country's culture or government, or evokes some aspect of the state's territory.

Regarding the euro, some confusion regarding the obverse and reverse of the euro coins exists. Officially, as agreed by the informal Economic and Finance Ministers Council of Verona in April 1996, and despite the fact that a number of countries have a different design for each coin, the distinctive national side for the circulation coins is the obverse and the common European side (which includes the coin value) is the reverse.[5] This rule does not apply to the collector coins as they do not have a common side.

A number of the designs used for obverse national sides of euro coins were taken from the reverse of the nations' former pre-euro coins. Several countries (such as Spain and Belgium) continue to use portraits of the reigning monarch, while the Republic of Ireland continues to use the State Arms, as on its earlier issues.

The United States specifies what appears on the obverse and reverse of its currency. The specifications mentioned here imply the use of all upper-case letters, although they appear here in upper and lower case letters for the legibility of the article.

The ten-year series of Statehood Quarters, whose issue began in 1999, was seen as calling for more space and more flexibility in the design of the reverse. A law specific to this series and the corresponding time period permits the following:

In the Policy Normalization Principles and Plans announced on September 17, 2014, the Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) indicated that it intended to use an overnight reverse repurchase agreement (ON RRP) facility as needed as a supplementary policy tool to help control the federal funds rate and keep it in the target range set by the FOMC (find out more about the Federal Reserve's plans for monetary policy normalization here). The Committee stated that it would use an ON RRP facility only to the extent necessary and will phase it out when it is no longer needed to help control the funds rate.

When the Federal Reserve conducts an overnight RRP, it sells a security to an eligible counterparty and simultaneously agrees to buy the security back the next day. This transaction does not affect the size of the System Open Market Account (SOMA) portfolio, but there is a reduction in reserve balances on the liability side of the Federal Reserve's balance sheet and a corresponding increase in reverse repo obligations while the trade is outstanding. The FOMC sets the ON RRP offering rate, which is the maximum interest rate the Federal Reserve is willing to pay in an ON RRP operation; the actual interest rate that a counterparty receives is determined through an auction process.

Committee members meet virtually on a regular basis throughout the year to share best practices, issues, solutions, and business opportunities within specific topics involving the reverse logistics industry. Committee participation is an RLA membership benefit. If you would like to join a committee and your company is not currently a member, please contact for membership information.

RL Magazine is a monthly digital publication of the Reverse Logistics Association and is the only magazine in the world completely focused on the issues and next/best practices of the Reverse Logistics industry. RL Magazine readers are industry professionals from manufacturers, retailers, service partners, academics, and consultants who need to keep current with the latest reverse logistics trends. Launched in 2006, the magazine is now distributed worldwide to a circulation of over 15,000 subscribers and growing.

Florida public secondary and postsecondary institutions are required to use the Florida Automated System for Transferring Educational Records (FASTER) to transmit official student records between and among institutions. However, this Agreement does not preclude a sending institution, as part of its local process, from using the National Student Clearinghouse (NSC) for exchange of reverse transfer data, as long as the receiving institution is also a member of the NSC. The NSC Electronic Transcript Exchange (ETX) Registry allows institutions to search for participants by state or download the full registry of participants. 041b061a72


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