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Landon Stewart
Landon Stewart

Where To Buy Donkey Milk PATCHED

Crystal Donkey Milk soap base offers effective cleansing with healing, rejuvenating and nourishing skin benefits from nutrient-rich donkey milk. This ethically sourced base is suitable for vegetarians.

where to buy donkey milk

Such bits of anecdotal evidence often excite marketers who are on the lookout for a product that can be promoted as the newest miracle elixir. They got unexpected support from of all people, Pope Francis, who revealed that he was fed donkey milk as a baby. Still, donkey milk itself is not likely to take off due to its cost, but donkey milk products may get a boost. Cosmetics that contain the milk and soaps made from the fat in the milk are available. And they have their fans with people claiming that beard itchiness and eczema on hands clear up with the use of donkey milk soap.

1School of Biosciences and Veterinary Medicine, University of Camerino, 62032 Camerino, Italy; ti.macinu@itteznecniv.aivlis (S.V.); ti.macinu@initnas.eppesuig (G.S.); ti.macinu@ittenozlop.airelav (V.P.); ti.macinu@illeraiccup.ainafets (S.P.); ti.macinu@avonamilk.ailuy (Y.K.)

A significant part of the population in Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, and Mongolia drink mare milk [4]. Milk produced by these two monogastric species shows similar protein, fat, lactose, ash, and water content (Table 1), with a chemical composition very close to that in human milk, considering the high lactose, low protein, and ash content [5].

Milk and dairy products are considered very important foods for healthy human nutrition, especially in childhood [14]. Milk is a complete food containing fat, proteins, carbohydrates, minerals, and vitamins. Some studies have evidenced the role of dairy foods as important macro- and micronutrient sources, considering their presence in a healthy diet to be positive [14]. Milk consumption is frequently associated with a reduction of the risk of osteoporosis, colorectal cancer, and of type 2 diabetes, but high amounts of dairy foods in the human diet have been reported to be responsible for increasing cardiovascular disease and prostate cancer [15]. Milk is also considered important in reducing moderate malnutrition in children, together with other dairy products, especially fermented milk (yoghurt), which is characterized by a similar chemical composition compared to fresh milk, apart from the reduced lactose content [16].

As shown in Table 4, the thiamine concentration in donkey milk (0.66 µM) has a very high value compared to that determined in human milk (0.12 µM) [24]. Riboflavin concentration in donkey milk (0.17 µM) is higher with respect to the value reported in human milk (0.08 µM), but it is very low compared to the values obtained both in cow and goat milk [24,25]. Riboflavin is the precursor of two cofactors that are biologically involved in the oxidation-reduction reactions, specifically flavin adenine mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD). The high contents of both thiamine and riboflavin determined in donkey milk have been described as one of the causes of the health effects associated with this food when administered in human nutrition [26,27].

As shown in Table 4, the nicotinic acid (Vitamin B3) content in donkey milk shows a value higher (18.75 µM) compared to human (4.64 µM) and cow milk but a value similar to that reported in goat milk [28]. Nicotinic acid, also named niacin, is a vitamin able to perform lipid-lowering effects, lowering both triglycerides and serum cholesterol [22].

Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) content (5.38 µM) in donkey milk (Table 4) is very high compared to human milk (0.48 µM) but close to the value determined in cow milk [29]. Vitamin B6 is involved in several biochemical pathways, such as amino acid metabolism, lipid metabolism, and gluconeogenesis. Lack of vitamin B6 is common, especially among the elderly and in fertile-aged women, leading to reduced immune responses [30].

Vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin) was not detected in donkey milk, confirming the findings obtained when analyzing donkey milk collected by Indian small grey donkeys [31]. The lack of vitamin B12 in equid milk compared to ruminant milk could be explained by the different digestive systems among these two mammalian species, which are both herbivores. Vitamin B12 is synthesized by the microorganisms of the digestive tract. Donkey is a hind gut fermenter, while in ruminants, most of the fermentations are developed in the rumen.

Vitamin A is a molecule formed by active compounds, retinoids, and carotenoids [38]. Carotenoids are normally detected in vegetables. uring the digestive processes, carotenoids are converted into retinol. The conversion rate is different according to the specific animal digestive physiology. Then retinol from the liver is transferred to the mammary gland, where it is esterified and finally secreted in the milk fat globules [39].

Vitamin D is a group of compounds deeply involved in calcium and bone metabolism, therefore performing an antirachitic activity in growing mammals and acting as a hormone [45]. Human milk contains a very low amount (0.06 µg/100 mL) of vitamin D (Table 4). In donkey milk, the total vitamin D level (2.23 µg/100 mL) is higher compared to the values determined in milk obtained in many other mammalian species, including human milk [46]. Recently, several clinical trials have investigated the anticarcinogenic, anti-celiac, and immunomodulatory properties of vitamin D, together with the well-known physiological role performed by this micronutrient in bone mass formation and osteoporosis prevention [47,48].

Vitamin E is a group of eight biologically active forms, represented by four tocopherols and four tocotrienols with antioxidant activity. In donkey milk, both α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol have been detected [38]. Human milk is characterized by a high content of vitamin E (237 µg/100 mL) compared to donkey (5.2 µg/100 mL) and cow milk (Table 4). Vitamin E is one of the major natural antioxidants, demonstrating a protecting effect on cells membranes against oxidation or peroxidation processes [49].

According to published data, vitamin K has never been detected in donkey milk, while mare milk shows about three-times more vitamin K compared to cow milk. Moreover, human milk shows a very low level of vitamin K content [50].

Since 1990, the use of donkey milk in cases of CMPA has been evaluated in several clinical trials, attracting great scientific attention, especially among pediatric allergists [55,56]. The choice of a possible replacement for cow milk in cases of CMPA is based mainly on two factors, nutritional properties and allergenic characteristics, together with other important criteria, such as cost and taste. Patients showing an allergy to ruminant milk can normally tolerate donkey milk [57,58,59]. Although the mechanism for tolerance to donkey milk is still not completely understood, it is normally attributed to its different content of major allergenic molecules in milk, particularly the protein fractions affecting the caseins/whey proteins ratio [60]. In Table 6, the clinical studies in which donkey milk has been used in the treatment of CMPA are shown. Tolerability has been investigated in vivo and in vitro, performing clinical check-ups (IgE cross-reactivity versus donkey milk proteins) and auxological evaluations, namely weight and body length [59].

The first case of donkey milk allergy was reported in 2017 [64]. A 25-year-old woman, with a previous personal history of recurrent atopic dermatitis, allergic asthma, and hay fever, showed facial angioedema 5 min after her first intake of fresh donkey milk. She showed severe dyspnea, collapsing a few minutes after. A treatment based on adrenaline and corticosteroids was administered to the patient. Another case of donkey milk allergy was recently described in a 35-year-old woman who had never shown food allergies but had a cat allergy, seasonal allergic rhinitis, and asthma caused by grass and olive pollen. The woman developed a respiratory allergy after her intake of donkey milk, showing rhino conjunctivitis and asthma [65].

In some geographical areas, raw donkey milk consumption is not unusual, as is the case of cow milk, in order to avoid thermal degradation of the valuable substances. This trend holds a risk for the consumer, due to the possible occurence of human pathogenic microorganisms in raw milk [15].

As mentioned above, raw milk from donkey is sold at farms and only refrigerated between 0 and 4C. Given the current increase of donkey milk demand, it could be considered as a potential health hazard source [16]; in fact, contamination caused by human pathogens would seem feasible. It is, therefore, strongly recommended to heat milk before consumption, especially by infants, with the purpose of better ensuring their health protection.

Raw donkey milk assessment should preferably focus on the potential and most relevant hazards throughout the milk chain. For this purpose, the presence of biological (bacteria, parasites, and virus) and chemical hazards should primarily be assessed. 041b061a72


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